The aim of the HLS approach can be described as: "... adequate and sustainable access to These objectives relate directly to the livelihoods framework; they will be explored in greater detail in Section 2 of the Guidance Sheets. improve livelihoods. To evaluate what changes are taking place in the livelihood During my time in Cambodia, themselves. It is very important to keep in mind that the wider environment affects not only the assets to which people have access, but also what can be achieved with those assets. For now, we will use the household as a unit of analysis, but as we will discuss in later units, it is important to recognise that not all individuals within a household have equal decision-making power, or benefit equally from household assets or income. a. This includes trends (such as national or international economic trends, changes in available technology, political systems), shocks (such as illness or death, conflict, weather), and seasonality (of prices, production cycles and so on). Are there trends that you have benefited from? alleviation as a key objective. The DFID leverages a sustainable livelihoods framework to focus holistically on activities directly related to improving an individual's livelihood. stresses." The idea of assets is central to the sustainable livelihoods approach. needs of vulnerable people and how these needs are met in order to The frameworks have come under two very different kinds of criticism. Sometimes, however, one form of capital decreases as another increases. The call for emphasis on sustainable livelihoods was the theory of structuration. Each of DFID’sadvisory cadres have a technical competency framework (TCF) that sets out the CARE's model focuses They also often involve hierarchical and coercive relationships that limit options for those at the lower levels, and even when relationships are more horizontal than vertical, the obligations that reciprocal relationships involve can be onerous. DFID Livelihoods Advisory positions are regularly advertised and only individuals who have met the required professional standards through accreditation at the appropriate grade are eligibletoapply. Source: DFID, 1999. DFID. Livelihoods are generally associated with rural livelihoods. clearly a distinct experience from life in a rural setting. The sustainable livelihoods framework helps to organize the factors that constrain or enhance livelihood op-portunities and shows how they relate to one another. A contextual analysis The figure below, from the Department for International Development (DFID), helps to understand how household livelihood systems interact with the outside environment – both the natural environment and the policy and institutional context. Rather than understanding poverty as simply a lack of income, the sustainable livelihoods approach considers the assets that poor people need in order to sustain an adequate income to live. 2.2 The livelihoods framework The DFID has developed a ‘Sustainable Livelihood Framework’ (SLF) which is one of the most widely used livelihoods frameworks in development practice. status and asset levels of household members (Drinkwater et al. The UK Department for International Development (DFID) has been one of the first agencies to use this framework (for more information, see DFID and IDS, 2000). (socially, politically, intellectually and spiritually), in the the livelihoods approach. The Sustainable Livelihood Approach (SLA) to development intervention has been in vogue since the late 1990s and formed a central concept of the UK‟s Department for International Development‟s (DFID) strategy during the early years of the New Labour government in the UK. Sustainable Livelihoods Framework “A livelihood comprises the assets (Natural, Physical, Human, Financial and Social Capital), the activities ... 2.2 The UK’s Department for International Development - DFID In defining resilience, DFID focuses on disaster ... DFID Elements of Resilience Framework (DFID 2011) 6. capital owned by different types of household, and the nature of The sustainable livelihood framework appreciates the contexts and relationships that exist and thus influence and shape communities and households. Consumption activities for each household member can then be Strategies may include subsistence production or production for the market, participation in labour marketsor l… and to build up assets to withstand and recover from shocks and The framework shows how, in different contexts, sustainable livelihoods are achieved through access to a range of livelihood resources (natural, economic, human and social capitals) which are combined in the pursuit of different livelihood strategies (agricultural intensification or extensification, livelihood diversification and migration). mediate livelihood opportunities, which are also shaped by people's security linked to basic needs. 18 ... DFID-SEA Department for International Development – Southeast Asia FUNCINPEC The National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful and Co- ... University of Hull established the broad framework for the study. It was developed over a period of several months by the Sustainable Rural Livelihoods Advisory Committee, building on earlier work by the Institute of Development Studies (amongst others). The question arises whether or not livelihood frameworks can be used Seasonal shifts in prices, production and employment opportunities are one of the most enduring sources of hardship for poor people all over the world. The livelihood strategies and activities of poor people are often complex and diverse. security (De Haan et al. In particular, social capital has often been seen as simply 'a good thing' whereas, in reality, social networks can be both inclusive and exclusive, with often the weakest and most vulnerable excluded. 2002). • a policy and institutional environment that supports multiple livelihood strategies and promotes equitable access to competitive markets for all. A framework is a ‘particular way of viewing the world’.1 The livelihoods framework is a way of understanding how households derive their liveli-hoods by drawing on capabilities and assets to develop livelihood strategies composed of a range of activities. The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA) concept and framework adopted by DFID in the late 1990s (building on work by IDS, IISD, Oxfam and others) have been adapted by different organisations to suit a variety of contexts, issues, priorities and applications. These are represented by five key types of assets that households can draw from to achieve positive livelihood outcomes. In recent years the prominence of the five capitals has been criticised by development practitioners for focusing too much on the micro-level and neglecting the 'higher' levels of governance, the policy environment, national and global economic growth and so on. In the 1997 White Paper on international development, DFID made the ‘sustainable livelihoods approach’ (or SLA), a core principle of its strategy for pro-poor policy making. The Department for International Development is the United Kingdom's department dedicated to eradicating extreme poverty and administering foreign aid. 1999). The framework … summarised in terms of the livelihood The DFID has developed a ‘Sustainable Livelihood Framework’ (SLF) which is one of the most widely used livelihoods frameworks in development practice. understand urban and rural households: Alternative visualisation of the HLS framework [232KB], their access to information or to influential individuals, and. As we discussed earlier, poor people are usually obliged to combine a range of strategies in order simply to survive; individuals may engage in multiple activities, and the different members of a household may live and work in different places. Livelihood frameworks are thus tools to help us understand BNA led to many programmes focused basic needs and broader social and psychological senses of a DFID aims to understand livelihood strategies as part of its overall framework but in principle focuses its actual development activity on either assets themselves or on structures and processes (the idea being that this will maximize people's opportunities over the long term). on households and covering aspects of health, education, farming and This framework builds on a previous DFID agriculture policy paper published in 2005 and responds to changes in the global context as well as new DFID priorities. alternative visualisation of the CARE livelihood framework used to This could be true, for example, where a person or household sells their land to migrate to a city. support consumption needs. The concept of SLA had first appeared in research literature in The SLF was integrated in its program for development cooperation in 1997. The BNA gained momentum in the mid 1970s and had poverty DFID Department for International Development DiNER Diversity in Nutrition and Enhanced Resilience ... Assets as defined by the CRS Integral Human Development framework “A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (including both material and social resources) and activities required for a … within urban contexts. A livelihood framework is a tool that can be used to improve our understanding of the multiple components and processes that make up livelihood – particularly the livelihood of the poor. activities are only a means to improve livelihoods and not an end in They require access to productive resources This has led, for example, to a limited understanding of how markets work; how processes far from the lives of poor people nonetheless have an enormous impact on the possibilities that exist for them to earn a secure income. reproductive Five types of assets, or capital as they are described in the literature, have been identified that we all, not just poor people, need in order to make a living. Under the Basic Needs Approach, development was redefined as a economic growth taking place in most developing countries seemed to Open and look at the CARE's (overall) livelihood framework carefully: Basically the CARE's livelihoods framework shares key aspects in participatory methodology and adapting DFID's sustainable livelihoods framework, the research will identify how AIDS-affected young people are incorporated into (or excluded from) current household livelihood strategies, the processes and practices that shape their access to livelihood opportunities, now and in the future, and how they make decisions about livelihoods. and stress factors affecting livelihoods on the other. As a whole, this set of Guidance Sheets attempts to summarise and share emerging thinking on the sustainable livelihoods approach. Open the PDF file in the right-hand column and take a look at an 1999) Thus, CARE's emphasis is on household livelihood security status of households requires monitoring of the consumption The sustainable livelihoods framework in 3.1.1 is an effort to conceptualise livelihoods in a holistic way, capturing the many complexities of livelihoods, and the constraints and opportunities that they are subjected to. Yet You might, therefore, find it helpful to ‘test’ the livelihoods framework by trying to assess your own personal situation. to understand the typical levels of human, social, economic and natural The MUS approach builds upon this and other livelihood frameworks by focussing on the role of water in people’s livelihoods. Are there structures and processes that have helped or hindered your progress so far? The aim of the HLS approach can be described as: Comparing agencies All three agencies use the SL approach as a strategy towards poverty diagram includes. common with DFID's SLF, while also including elements of the Basic Needs Approach (see GLOPP lesson These objectives relate directly to the livelihoods framework; they will be explored in greater detail in Section 2 of the Guidance Sheets. Sometimes one outcome can negatively affect another; for example, when poor people engage in less risky, and hence lower income activities, in order to be less vulnerable to shocks. household and community in a specific perspective. lead a life that is fundamentally secure in respect both of the Unit 1 What is Rural Finance, and How Does it Fit into 'Development'. modernisation and as a break with past development theory. Together they define the scope of DFID’s livelihood-promoting The sustainable livelihoods approach is no more than an attempt to provide a tool which is ‘useful to think with’. society of which they are part. The framework shows how, in different contexts, sustainable livelihoods are achieved through access to a range of livelihood resources (natural, economic, human and social capitals) which are combined in the pursuit of different livelihood strategies (agricultural intensification or extensification, livelihood diversification and migration). Two recent DFID evidence These are the following: The more assets any household has access to, the less vulnerable they will be to negative effects of the trends and shocks as described above, or to seasonality, and the more secure their livelihood will be. It does not offer definitive answers and guidelines. livelihoods, both in rural and urban areas. By the end of the 1960s, it was widely agreed that the such as land, knowledge and capital, and from these an income to go hand in hand with an increase in absolute and relative poverty. "Development Theories") as targets for livelihood outcomes. answers this question in the following manner: "Living in an urban environment is Among others, the Department for International Development (DfID), of UK, the UN system including the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and national governments have actively used the SLF since the All of these can change both the vulnerability context and the assets to which poor people have access. Based on those assets, and shaped by the vulnerability context and the transforming structures and processes, poor people are able to undertake a range of livelihood strategies - activities and choices - that ultimately determine their livelihood outcomes. income and other resources to enable households to meet basic needs that affect livelihoods on the one hand, and to identify the major shock Often increasing one type of capital will lead to an increase in other amounts of capital, for example, as people become educated (increase in human capital) they may get a better job which earns more money (increase in financial capital) which in turn means that they are able to upgrade their home and facilities (increase in physical capital). The livelihood assets, The livelihoods framework is a tool to improve our understanding of livelihoods, particularly the livelihoods of the poor. This paper sets out a conceptual framework to guide DFID’s future approach to agriculture and the agrifood sector. The Household Livelihood Security (HLS) approach has become the basic framework for CARE’s programme analysis, design, monitoring and evaluation. What shocks have you suffered along the way? • a policy and institutional environment that supports multiple livelihood strategies and promotes equitable access to competitive markets for all. commonly used and ‘conceptually sophisticated’ (according to Pain and Lautze, 2002) is DFID’s Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF) which continues to prove influential today (see Figure 1). their ability to claim from relatives, the state or other outcome status for different areas of livelihood the desire for the same entitlements or rights. 3.1 The sustainable livelihoods framework. that were designed to create a minimum level direct approach was required to deliver welfare outcomes. The Sustainable Livelihood Framework (DFID) The Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF – below), developed by DFID, focuses on the strengths and assets that people own to ensure their food security and livelihoods. These issues are of course captured in the wider sustainable livelihoods framework, within the transforming structures and processes and the 'vulnerability context' but, in practice, many people have used the idea of the five capitals more than they have the linkages between those and the wider environment in which people live. For rural people, agriculture and other natural resource-based activities may play an important role, but rural households also diversify into other activities, some of which are linked to agriculture and the natural resources sector, others which are not. These constraints and opportunities are shaped by numerous factors, ranging from global or national level trends and structures over which individuals have no control, and may not even be aware of, to more local norms and institutions and, finally, the assets to which the households or individual has direct access. All of the criticisms and limitations of the sustainable livelihoods approach outlined above are certainly valid. The sustainable livelihoods framework in 3.1.1 is an effort to conceptualise livelihoods in a holistic way, capturing the many complexities of livelihoods, and the constraints and opportunities that they are subjected to. of welfare for the weakest groups of society (Elliott 2002). De Haan (2002) activities The 'transforming structures and processes' box refers to the institutions and policies that affect poor peoples' lives, from public and private entities to national policies and local culture. is that it lays greater emphasis on the household. despite the contrasts in terms of context, there is one factor Again, while such dynamics are included in the framework, in practice, they have been neglected. The asset box depicted in the (Drinkwater et al. A central notion is that different households have differ-ent access livelihood assets, which the sustainable livelihood approach aims to expand. The SLF was integrated in its program for development cooperation in 1997. livelihoods. Figure 1: Sustainable livelihoods framework . The main difference between this model and the SLF that remains unchanged: people themselves. broad-based, people-oriented or endogenous process, as a critique of resources; infrastructure; economic, cultural and political environment) Basically the CARE's livelihoods framework shares key aspects in common with DFID's SLF, while also including elements of the Basic Needs Approach (see GLOPP lesson "Development Theories") as targets for livelihood outcomes. A Wider economic conditions can create more or fewer opportunities; an illness in the family can deprive a family of an important source of income and can force them to sell important assets that they have built up. The sustainable livelihoods framework has also been criticised for failing to take power dynamics into consideration, as it relates to gender, for example. Wherever people live, they retain essentially the same human needs, and There are three major elements in CARE's livelihood framework: Once again, you can see a strong link between the framework and educate children, and the ability to participate, in all senses • The framework considers five types of capital - the “asset pentagon”- and how these The vulnerability context is important because the three factors have a direct impact on the possibilities that poor people have to earn a living now and in the future. agency (livelihood strategies). Analysing livelihood strategies aims DFID sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets Author: DFID Year: 1999 Resource type: Official. A central element of DFID’s approach is the SL Framework, an analytical structure to facilitate a broad and systematic understanding of the various factors that constrain or enhance livelihood opportunities, and to show how they relate to each other. Department for International Development (DFID). The context can be seen as structures that In this report, the framework currently used by DFID is used as a basi s for analysis5. CARE seeks to understand the The outcomes that they may achieve, all being well, could include more income, increased well-being, reduced vulnerability and greater food security. around a household's livelihoods strategy. Department of International Development (DFID). The approach attempts to summarise in a single set of diagrams and connected terms the extremely complex and diverse reasons for poverty and the possibilities for addressing it. Nonetheless, it remains very useful for our purposes in this module, both for considering the very micro-level details of poor people's livelihoods and for considering the wider context in which those livelihoods operate. Contextual factors place the The vulnerability context in 3.1.1 refers to the external environment in which people live. They require food, shelter, clothing, access to medical facilities, the ability to livelihood.". CARE makes use of various figures to support the application of DFID adapts a version of Chambers Conway’s definition of livelihoods: The holistic framework which has been developed by DFID is intended to: • Define the scope of and provide the analytic basis for livelihood analysis • Help those concerned with supporting SRL to understand and manage the complexity of aims to produce an understanding of the key contextual factors (natural actors. Thus these requirements amount to the entitlement each person has to Inevitably, when used in practice it is unwieldy and certain elements will be highlighted more than others depending on the interests of the users. Both frameworks are people-centred. production, income and exchange activities that result from them. It is rooted ‘in farming systems research in the late 1970s and early 1980s and later in nutritional diagnostic work…’ (Toolkit, p.v). 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