Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and to improve their standards of living. Forced Migration Review, 43, 4–6. Cyclone, coastal society, and migration: Empirical evidence from Bangladesh. Consideration of the historical and social contexts is thus critical for a firm understanding of livelihood change and the changing role and importance of diversification activities. (2013). Livelihood strategies aim to achieve livelihood outcomes. Perch-Nielsen, S. L., Bättig, M. B., & Imboden, D. (2008). Managing livelihood risks: Income diversification and the livelihood strategies of households in pastoral settlements in Isiolo County, Kenya. Global report on internal displacement. 34. Fisher communities in transition: understanding change from a livelihood perspective in Chilika Lagoon, India. Karim, A. H. M. Z., & Mustari, S. (2015). Based on empirical research conducted in Cameroon, Ghana and Tanzania, the study shows that improved It is therefore not surprising that many development strategies and programs seek to design development interventions to better promote livelihood diversification… 2 A. Yahiya Tamim for his support in preparation of data and map. In N. Roy, S. Roychoudhury, S. Nautiyal, S. Agarwal, & S. Baksi (Eds. (2009). Numerical simulation of marine internal wave dynamics based on functional analysis. Learn about our remote access options. Social structure, household strategies, and the cumulative causation of migration. A. Biswas, B., Mallick, B. Livelihood diversification as key to long-term non-migration: evidence from coastal Bangladesh. 2Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Shonchoy, A. S. (2015). Characteristics and determinants of livelihood diversification of different household types in far Northwestern China. Environmental change and migration: A growing concern. Furthermore, fisheries and tourism are the most important sectors, and offer more opportunities to generate higher income for households. Rahman, S., Barmon, B. K., & Ahmed, N. (2011). Livelihood diversification in the rural areas of the developing world got importance in the literature and research since the 1990s with the introduction of the livelihood frameworks. PubMed Google Scholar. ‘The war whose bullets you don't see’: Diamond digging, resilience and Ebola in Sierra Leone. Avila-Foucat, V. S., & Rodríguez-Robayo, K. J. World Development, 27(2), 249–269. Ackerly, B. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. livelihood diversification; sustainable land management 1. This study examines the role of livelihood diversification in promoting household food security with particular reference to Hurungwe District in Zimbabwe. Sussex: Institute of Development Studies. Read "Livelihood diversification: increasing in importance or increasingly recognized? With respect to ecosystem-based livelihoods, there is more household participation in fishing and seaweed farming, but it varies from village to village. Livelihood diversification in the rural areas of the developing world got importance in the literature and research since the 1990s with the introduction of the livelihood frameworks. The importance of livelihood diversification activities in improving economic condition of rural farmers of the two communities is studied. The full text of this article hosted at is unavailable due to technical difficulties. Pastoral Households in Xinjiang, China. Skeldon, R. (1997). The Dynamics of Livelihood Diversification in Ethiopia Revisited: Evidence from Panel data. ), Socio-economic and eco-biological dimensions in resource use and conservation (pp. A livelihood is sustainable when it enables people to cope with and recover from shocks and stresses (such as natural disasters and economic or social upheavals) and enhance their well-being and that of future generations without undermining the natural environment or resource base. Population and Environment, 37, 429–448. Accessed 21 Dec 2010. World Development Perspectives, 13, 1–9. American Economic Review, 75, 173–178. 435–457). Migration, unemployment and development: A two-sector analysis. Available studies such as Woldehanna and Oskam (2001) and Yenesew et al. (2019). Livelihood diversification under severe food insecurity scenario among smallholder farmers in Kadida Gamela District, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 34(4), 417–438. This paper sets out to explore the links between livelihood diversification and access to natural resources, and it does this bearing in mind the need to make micro-macro policy links between local level rural livelihoods and national level poverty reduction efforts represented by Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). This focuses on assessing the contribution and impact of predominant livelihood diversification strategies in study area. Environmental Science & Policy, 93, 129–138. 114–116). Although still of central importance, farming on its own is increasingly unable to provide a sufficient means of survival in rural areas. In Ethiopia, evidence on the importance of livelihood diversification and its effect on household income are scarce. This paper examines livelihood diversification as a survival strategy of rural households in developing countries. B., & Vyas, R. N. (1999). Moreover, therefore, one in every three households in these studied communities’ practices seasonal migration as an alternative livelihood strategy so that their family can stay put. Islam, M. S., Wahab, M. A., & Miah, A. (2015) relied only on factors influencing decision to non/off-farm diversification and determinants of livelihood diversification respectively. Rahman, M. M., Flitner, M., Krause, G., & Maniruzzaman, M. (2008). Random forest analysis of two household surveys can identify important predictors of migration in Bangladesh. These arrangements were deeply embedded in complex social relations. The concept revolves around resources such as land/property, crops, food, knowledge, finances, social relationships, and their interrelated connection with the political, economic, and sociocultural characteristics of an individual community. Population displacement after cyclone and its consequences: Empirical evidence from coastal Bangladesh. Destination country policy? Owing to the importance of non‐farm activities for rural farm households, livelihood diversification strategies have become an issue of central interest to development researchers and policymakers. (2020). Understanding Famine in Ethiopia: Bio-Physical and Socio-Economic Drivers. Brighton: IDS. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Climate, conflict and forced migration. Evidence from Pastoral Households in the Altay and Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang, China. Raj Sharma, K. (2008). (2015). As these institutional arrangements have changed, so ‘diversification activities’ have become more visible. Impact of climate change seen on agriculture, forestry and fisheries. In the long term, an expanding RNFE and multiple livelihoods are a temporary phenomenon of structural transformation. Climate‐Change Adaptation in Ethiopia: To What Extent Does Social Protection Influence Livelihood Diversification?. Farming practices and livelihood of the coastal people of Bangladesh. were the key predictors of livelihood diversification. Amrith, S. S. (2013). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. The Developing Economies, 53(1), 1–26. Disruption, not displacement: Environmental variability and temporary migration in Bangladesh. Google Scholar. The determinants and effects of diversification in the areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are examined. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 4(1), 35–40. Livelihood diversification strategies play a key role in development process. Liu, H. (2018). 1–19). Part of Springer Nature. Migration and development migration and development in low-income countries: A role for destination country policy? Hugo, G. (2012). Bennet, K., Bilak, A., Bullock, N., Cakaj, L., & Clarey, M. (2017). Measuring economic diversification in Hawaii. Authors are thankful to Mr. Palash Mallick and Mr. Biplob Das for their hard work during the field survey, and also Md. In R. J. Nicholls, et al. The single most important activity is trading, while labouring for others is also important. Farmers’ perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel. In highland Wolayta non‐farm activities (particularly trading and labouring for others) have a long history. Ph.D. Natural Hazards, 73(2), 191–212. The single most important activity is trading, while labouring for others is also important. Migration in the context of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change: Insights from analogues. Ahmed, M. T., Bhandari, H., Gordoncillo, P. U., Quicoy, C. B., & Carnaje, G. P. (2015). The paper also shows the need for greater historical depth in the understanding of livelihood diversification. What motivates individuals to protect themselves from risks: The case of wildland fires. A., et al. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, 2(2), 32–38. Karim, M. R. (2006). and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. - The Nexus between socio-ecological system, livelihood resilience, and migration decisions: Empirical evidence from Bangladesh. This sector can continue to be a major source of the world’s food and fiber if ecosystem balance is maintained. Diversification of livelihoods is a recurrently applied approach for cushioning economic and environmental shocks on the path to improving food security. Hussein, K., & Nelson, J. Variables determining livelihood diversification activities of two selected communities are also identified during the study. Adger, W. N. (1999). The relationship between fishing, livelihood diversification and poverty was investigated in the lower Mekong basin, in Laos, where fishing forms an important, but usually secondary part of rural livelihoods. the importance of alternative livelihood intervention as one of the means to reduce forest dependency through poverty reduction. Mistri, A., & Das, B. Rigaud, K. K., de Sherbinin, A., Jones, B., Bergmann, J., Clement, V., & Ober, K. (2018). Discover diversification strategies as people” step up, ”step partially out”, or “move out” of agriculture View case studies of various diversification strategies, and Learn about socio-economic factors which influence livelihood opportunities. Preprint. Uddin, M. T., & Nasrin, M. (2013). Exploring the link between climate change and migration. Investigation of soil and water salinity, its effect on crop production and adaptation strategy. Khanom, T. (2016). Rahman, M. S., & Gain, A. (2014). Comparative Migration Studies, 8(1), 1–20. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Economics, 25(1), 63–76. Cham: Springer. Livelihood diversification may take place when rural producers change the composition of agricultural products they produce. Migration and development: A global perspective. Mallick, B., & Vogt, J. The contribution made by livelihood diversification to rural livelihoods is a significant Hunter, L. M. (2005). Adaptation to river bank erosion induced displacement in Koyra Upazila of Bangladesh. The effect of environmental change on human migration. Livelihood diversification and transition in rural Africa have been extensively studied in recent times (Barrett et al. Nonlinear permanent migration response to climatic variations but minimal response to disasters. Global Environmental Change, 54, 239–249. The results indicate that livelihood diversification has a positive and significant effect on household income at p< 0.0001. de Haas, H. (2007). Czaika, M., & Vothknecht, M. (2014). (2002). livelihood diversification strategies. LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGIES, INCOMES AND SOIL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES: A CASE STUDY FROM KERIO VALLEY, KENYA MIYUKI IIYAMA1*, PATRICK KARIUKI 2, PATTI KRISTJANSON , SIMEON KAITIBIE2 and JOSEPH MAITIMA2 1University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa 2The International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract: African farmers diversify their livelihood … Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44, 945–963. Entrepreneurship and income inequality in southern Ethiopia. Migration Data Portal. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 36(3), 465–481. (Eds. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. In this paper, we have assessed the role of livelihood diversification in household well-being in Humla, a remote mountain district in west Nepal. Ellis, F. (1998). Environment, political economies and livelihood change. Furthermore, socioeconomic determinants are of importance in assessing HRQOL in rural settings to provide evidence-based decision for policymakers, planners, and social workers for developing and … Sustainable livelihoods and livelihood diversification. Finally, the importance of regulating or mediating rural labour markets is discussed. Diversification economies and efficiencies in a ‘blue-green revolution combination: A case study of prawn-carp-rice farming in the ‘gher’ system in Bangladesh. an evaluation of five income generating projects in tembisa Mertz, O., Mbow, C., Reenberg, A., & Diouf, A. Gender & Development, 19(1), 23–38. 2001). Mistri, A. Bohra-Mishra, P., Oppenheimer, M., & Hsiang, S. M. (2014). (2008). Livelihoods, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Morogoro, Tanzania. Thresholds in climate migration. Livelihood diversification enables rural household farmers to device other means to promote their level of income and minimize susceptibility to different livelihood shocks. Livelihood diversification is typical in coastal rural areas and it is increasingly important to identify opportunities for income generation and ways to alleviate poverty. Sustainability, 11, 3332. Ayeb-karlsson, S. (2018). Trapped or voluntary: Non-migration despite climate risks. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. The life and livelihood of coastal farming communities in Bangladesh are highly vulnerable to climate and environmental change. Working paper 31, Migration Out of Poverty Series, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QN, United Kingdom. Groundswell: Preparing for internal climate migration. Martin, I. M., Bender, Holly, & Carol, R. (2007). Environ Dev Sustain (2020). Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Global Environmental Change, 46, 157–165. Migration and Development, 1, 37–41. Agriculture diversification in South Asia: Patterns, determinants, and policy implications. Migration, remittances, and the family. Drawing on research from southern Ethiopia this article presents evidence that non‐farm and off‐farm activities are carried out by a significant proportion of adults and make an important contribution to livelihoods. Seasonal migration and microcredit during agricultural lean seasons: Evidence from Northwest B Bangladesh. Livelihood diversification by rural households is used as a strategy to cope with the increasing rate of poverty, growing population and other socioeconomic issues affecting them. Livelihood diversification is one of the most remarkable ch aracteristics of rural livelihood strategy. International Development Planning Review, 34(3), 217–240. Revisiting aspiration and ability in international migration. de Campos, R. S., Codjoe, S. N. A., Adger, W. N., Mortreux, C., Hazra, S., Siddiqui, T., et al. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics. The Legacy of the Vietnam War: Making a Living amid Unexploded Ordnance in Xieng Khouang Province, Northern Laos. Current Research in Social Sciences, 5(1), 35–44. (2020). This paper explores just one facet of livelihood diversity, namely the reasons for households to adopt multiple livelihood strategies. Results from a household survey show that participation in fishing is common and positively associated with higher occupational diversity and more agricultural activities. Migration as one of several adaptation strategies for environmental limitations in Tunisia: evidence from El Faouar. Aquaculture International, 19(4), 665–682. 201–222). It focuses on poverty dynamics, food security and local development. Diversification and livelihood sustainability in a semi-arid environment: A case study from southern Ethiopia. Household strategies and rural livelihood diversification. IZA Journal of Migration, 3(1), 1. Progressive Agriculture, 24(1–2), 251–262. Sustainable enterprises provide a strong tool for livelihood ... the importance of a collaborative sustainable enterprise system to ensure livelihood security. (2014). Socioeconomic and environmental impacts of alternate shrimp-crop farming in Bangladesh. Adoption of environmental management practices in the hotel industry in Sri Lanka. Primary data were collected from 220 respondents using structured questionnaire. Enhancing economic subsistence: Diversification activities and labor intensification as economic setback mitigation in upland agriculture communities. Finally, the study highlighted the importance of continued commitment on the part of policy-makers and local administrators to support the development of non-farm and off-farm livelihood sources through availing credit services, skill training and, above all, educating the community. Does Diversification Translate into Improved Livelihoods?, DOI:, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Collyer, M. (2010). (2008). Climate change impact and agriculture of Bangladesh. A 1.0% increase in livelihood diversification will lead to 3.9% increase in income signifying an elastic relationship. Population Research and Policy Review, 18(5), 471–487. (2002). This study helps to identify different impact of livelihood diversification strategies in the selected rural tribal communities and filled the gaps that have been yet addressed by researchers in a study. sustainable livelihood approaches: the future for income generating projects in urban areas? Cultural barriers to climate change adaptation: A case study from Northern Burkina Faso. However, identification of the factors that determine households’ choice of livelihood strategies of pastoralists has received little attention. Population Index, 56(1), 3–26. Migration and development: A theoretical perspective. A., Anam, M. M., & Gilligan, J. Changing livelihoods induced by the impact of shrimp cultivation. Sobczak-Szelc, K., & Fekih, N. (2020). Aryal, J. P., Rahut, D. B., Maharjan, S., & Erenstein, O. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. (2018). A sizeable number of rural households in South Africa work two or more jobs to generate more income. The importance of access to TV and radio as effective mass media tools in influencing household behavior is underscored in the analysis. Stark, O.[1].pdf. Environment and Livelihoods in Tropical Coastal Zones: Managing Agriculture-Fishery-Aquaculture Conflicts, 2, 61–71. Page 9 of 68 . Bernados, S., Jr. (2019). Flexibility in return, reconstruction and livelihoods in displaced villages in Casamance, Senegal. Economics Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, 8208, Bangladesh, Chair of Environmental Development and Risk Management, Technische Universität Dresden (TUD), Dresden, Germany, CU Population Center Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado Boulder Campus, Boulder, CO, 80309, USA, You can also search for this author in This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Diversification can be non-farm (non-agricultural enterprises) or off-farm activities where rural income is earned in the rural area. (Eds.). Accessed 14 Jan 2019. Massey, D. S. (1990). The determinants and effects of diversification in the areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are examined. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 1, 450–461. This working paper explores the importance of livelihood diversification and mobility in livelihood transformation processes in dynamic rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. (1998). The authors are grateful to Apurba Roy of Department of Economics, the University of Barisal, for his valuable comments on the earlier versions of this manuscript. Salam et al. Research and Economic Analysis Division (READ), Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism of Hawaii. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Migration as a human affair: Integrating individual stress thresholds into quantitative models of climate migration. Migration and environmental hazards. Kartiki, K. (2011). It shows that there is a high involvement of women in diversification and that the contribution of diversification activities to cash incomes is particularly important for poorer households. Betts, A. Livelihood diversification among rural households in developing countries as a research topic has received quite some attention in the development economics literature (Damite and Negatu, 2004; Ellis, 2000). (1997). (2020). The findings underscore the importance of human capital investment and related support services for improving the pastoralist capacity to manage risk through welfare-enhancing diversified income portfolio adoption. Sustainability, 12(1), 1–20. Handbook of Famine, Starvation, and Nutrient Deprivation. Is the Migration from Indian Sundarban an Environmental Migration? The study and livelihood strategies on HRQOL in rural Ethiopia has not been studied. Mallick, B. Crossing the Bay of Bengal: The furies of nature and the fortunes of migrants. IMPACT OF LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION ON HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY: THE CASE OF HURUNGWE DISTRICT, ZIMBABWE by ADMIRAL NCUBE Submitted in accordance with the requirements for the MASTER OF ARTS degree in the subject of DEVELOPMENT STUDIES at the UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA SUPERVISOR: DR. STEPHAN P. TREURNICHT . Swapan, M. S. H. (2007). Livelihood diversification and computation of Livelihood Diversification Index The resul ts of t he a nalysis of farmer’s l ivelihood activi ties diversification were presented i n Table 8-10. Livelihood diversification in the rural areas of the developing world got importance in the literature and research since the 1990s with the introduction of the livelihood frameworks. Limits and barriers to adaptation to climate variability and change in Bangladeshi coastal fishing communities. Singapore: Springer. Understanding how livelihood diversification contributes to long-term non-migration decisions of people at risks is innovative and timely in the context of future climate change adaptation planning. A commonly applied strategy for coping with economic and environmental shocks and to the! Their hard work during the field survey, and migration Studies, 44, 945–963 National Academy of of... This article result generated through Review may be important for Development and cultural,. 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